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MLA Parenthetical Documentation

Parenthetical Citations
Research assignments MUST have citations! Citations PROVE research has occurred!
** There should be a PERFECT MATCH between what you put in the parenthetical citation and the first word(s) of each entry in your works cited. **
What to cite:
• Direct quotations
• Facts, figures, statistics, definitions, etc.
• An original idea, opinion, or interpretation of another person’s that you put into your own words
• Every source listed on your Annotated Bibliography MUST be used at least once in your responses
• Be sure your sources are BALANCED throughout your responses.
How to write parenthetical citations:
• At the end of the sentence(s) that contains the information (quote OR paraphrase) put a pair of parenthesis. These parentheses go before the end punctuation.
• Inside of the parenthesis, put the last name of the author of the source, then a space, and then the page number on which the information was found.
• If there is no page number, put the author’s last name ONLY.
• If there is no author, put the first word(s) of the title (excluding a, an, or the).
• If you have two different authors with the same last name, include an initial of the author’s first name as well as the last name.
• If you have more than one work by the same author, give the author’s last name, a comma, a shortened version of the title, and page number)
• Always be sure to follow the same punctuation in your parenthetical citation that is found on the Annotated Bibliography
• One author / editor: (Smith 34)
• Two authors / editors: (Smith and Johnson 52)
• Three authors / editors: (Smith, Johnson, and Peters 17)
• Four or more authors / editors: (Smith et al. 174)
• Title only: (“Interior Designers” 58)
• Similar titles from different sources:
(“Interior Designers and Decorators,” Career Encyclopedia 118) and
(“Interior Designers and Decorators,” Encyclopedia Britannica 34)
• Two authors with the same last name: (A. Walters 30) and (J. Walters 772)
• More than one work by the same author: (Smith, Medieval Castles 34) and
(Smith, Middle Ages 22)